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10 questions with Mike Cottmeyer

I recently met with Mike Cottmeyer of Leading Agile and gave him a few questions to answer about his experience and knowledge with agile development and the Agile Community. Agile development and its various subforms are not the typical subject matter for The Merchant Stand blog. However, the concepts and principals of agile development have application in both software development projects and non-software projects as well. As companies face the realities of a competitive marketplace and demands to produce results more quickly, they are moving towards agile team structures and process flows. My objective is to write about work methods that make organizations more nimble while also providing exceeding value to customers. Mike Cottmeyer has a passion for this idea and lives  it every day.  Check out what he had to say.

1. How did you transition from a PMBOK/PMP project manager advocate to an agile development evangelist?

I was never really an advocate of the PMI approach directly. Honestly, my early project management experience was pretty unstructured and undisciplined. As I learned more about the profession of Project Management, I came across many of the tools advocated by the PMI. Much of what PMI was saying about planning and structure never really fit my experience. Fortunately or unfortunately, most of my experience has been on projects with lots of changing requirements using technologies that we were figuring out on the fly.

When I was finally exposed to agile as a way of thinking about project management, it was a natural fit for how I already viewed the world. Now my goal is to bring some of the structure and discipline of traditional methods to the agile community.

2. How should a PMP project manager incorporate agile into a project plan for software releases?

I do whole presentations on this topic. The biggest thing a traditional PM can do is start focusing on measuring progress against real deliverables and stop focusing on intermediate artifacts and project activity. We need to start measuring progress against real project deliverables that create value for our customers. That means breaking requirements into smaller chunks and delivering software more frequently through the life of the project. Customers only care about intermediate artifacts because we have never given them a better way to assess progress…. working software is the only real measure of progress.

3. Where is agile gaining the greatest acceptance?

Agile as a project management methodology really only has significant traction in the software development community. There are folks out there that are using agile to run community organizations and marketing departments but they are in the minority. We have experience with folks using agile approaches in architecture firms and on construction projects. This just isn’t where the body of knowledge lives right now. It is worth noting that an Agile Community of Practice has just been formed in the PMI to promote greater understanding amongst their membership.

4. Where is agile seeing the greatest resistance?

People in general have a hard time changing. Even in companies claiming to be ‘agile’ there is tremendous resistance to actually making change real. Agile encompasses not only project management but also engineering practice and leadership. The hardest part about adopting agile is the change that agile is requiring us to make to our people and to our organizational cultures. Servant leadership… openness… transparency… trust… are attributes of agile that can’t be turned on overnight or made to happen by management decree.

5. What’s the next big step in the maturation process for agile?

I mentioned the Agile PMI Community of Practice. My hope is that we see the agile community influence the PMI… but also be open to influence by the PMI. We need to be able to express where and when agile is the right approach to project management and make sure that we have the proper controls in place to meet customer expectations.

6. Why should e-Commerce and Internet marketing professional care if their organizations are using agile development methods?

Agile is about being responsive to change. In the world of e-Commerce and Internet Marketing… we don’t have 18 months to wait for a project deliverables. We need our projects fast… and we need to be able to change them when we learn new information about the competitive landscape. We need to be able to change with as little cost and upheaval as possible. If we don’t figure out how to dramatically reduce the cycle time of our projects… if we don’t figure out how to respond faster… someone else will come along that can and we will lose market share. Agile gives us a way to deliver value faster and make changes when we learn new information.

7. Do you see agile techniques and concepts being adopted by other industries, standards, or methods? (Is agile universal?)

Agile can be applied anywhere requirements are uncertain and very likely to change. Sometimes the agile practices have to be adapted to a specific industry…. but in general we are talking about smaller requirements… smaller more frequent deliveries… just in time planning… rolling wave… progressive elaboration. Agile is not for everyone and it is not for every problem domain. That said… I do believe that many of the principles apply is most situations.

8. Does agile focus on processes, people, or results?

Agile is about delivering value… so I would have to say results… but that doesn’t mean we always deliver exactly what we set out to build. We want to focus on value delivered to customers. Results are defined in terms of customer value… not specific deliverables. We might have to change… we might have to inspect and adapt… to get the business value we set out to deliver.

9. What book is on your nightstand right now?

“The Goal” by Eli Goldratt and Jeff Cox

10. What can we expect to see from Mike Cottmeyer in the next year?

I expect that I will continue to write and speak on the topics of agile project management and leadership. You’ll see me continue to blog and consult, and if all goes well, by the end of next year I will have published my first book.

4 Steps for Organizational Agility

Last week I provided some thoughts about organizational agility and a few of the root causes for why organizations suffer issues related to non-productivity. Getting work done into today’s organizations often becomes a game of who can beat the system. Management wants you to get your tasks done quickly to deliver results, but they can’t condone actions that don’t follow the established procedures and approvals. That’s the rub. Often times, existing process and approval steps are burdened with layers of red tape, people, and committees. So we play games to jockey and position for priority of work and assignment of resources. Who pays for this at the end of the day? The customer does. Opportunity costs are high as value added products and services to customers are delayed while work is caught up in the system.

So how do we become more agile in our Internet marketing and eCommerce organizations? There are 4 steps to outfit your ship with more speed:

1.Focus on the intended outcome

We spend a lot of time focusing on existing processes and procedures. This is not a bad thing as processes should be refined for incremental improvements. The danger is that when we only look for ways to improve existing processes then we fail to think about new ways to solve the problem. In fact, we often forget what the original problem was and thus we forget the whole purpose of the process. By focusing on the intended outcome, we can more easily steer clear of obstacles that are unnecessary and impede progress.

Agile Building Block

Photo: Creative Commons from weesen

Often times people justify process steps because they are necessary for some governing compliance or audit check. In many cases, if you examine the intended outcome of an audit, you’ll find that the audit isn’t so much checking the details of what steps you follow, rather that you follow your published steps consistently. For example, is it necessary to get the 4 different sign-offs for a change or would it suffice to have a sign-off from a managerial position that was not directly involved with the implementation of the work? If your process and quality control is to have sign-off from an third party then you have an opportunity to shrink the approval process. Perhaps all those other people would do just as well with an informational notification with the ability to object if they had issues with the change.

2.Get management support

To gain widespread adoption of any changes, you have to get management in on the program. My experience has been that without management support, you’ll get at best pockets of adoption towards organizational agility. Those groups that try to use agile methods will be the ones with local managers who can influence work flow within their team. An example of this might be a team that controls content of a web site. The manager may enable his implementer to work directly with the requesting customer for approval of the change and not require additional approvals from himself. The manager may setup a system whereby the implementer does their work according to a set of guidelines. If the requested work falls outside the guidelines then further discussion is needed.

What are some ways to about getting widespread management support? One, is to provide examples of agile-like methods in use and how much more productive a team has been with the methods. Find examples of a development team that left behind a waterfall software development method and adopted a method by which they went to 6-8 week release cycles following one of the agile SDLC flavors. Can you prove more productivity? Did the software error rate decrease? Were the customers happier and more satisfied?

If management is interested after seeing some real-life examples, then ask for a pilot. This could be as simple as restructuring an approval process for documentation or more complex like adding an agile software development process. Measure the results of the pilot and use that as the basis for more support from management.

3.Train the organization on agile methods

Once you have management on board and supporting a move to streamline the organizational processes, you need to train the masses. For development organizations, this could be extensive if the existing work force has never known anything other than the waterfall method. People find comfort in a process they know and resist change. Agile methods require a change in thought and perspective.  As with management, the team members need to be on board with how agile processes will help them be more efficient at their jobs to deliver better quality products and services to their customers. The best way to sell this is to show how your methods will free team members to do more of what they were hired to do (create products/services) and less of what frustrates them (paper work, approvals, politics, etc.)

For something like an approval process, you may not need to introduce formal training. Here it might be sufficient to update documentation for the process and then have a review with everyone. In many cases work flow approvals are governed by software, so it could require an adjustment of that as well. So let’s say for example that you have a process in place that governs press releases. Maybe the document must be first be drafted by the subject matter expert and then passed to his or her manager for edits. After that it goes to two different vice presidents for approval and edits. Once this is done its passed to the legal department for review and edits.  You might make this process more agile by having a single review time with everyone and do it in person rather than waiting for multiple approvals through an automated software system. Another idea is to shorten the list of approvers but increase the list of those who are notified. Anyone on the notification list can object, but they don’t stand in the way of approvals and introduce multiple rounds of edits.

4.Create a culture that thrives on customer focus

When you create a culture that is passionate about getting things done for the customer, then you’ll have a group of people that will not be happy with processes and procedures that create delays and unnecessary steps.  People who are customer focused will thrive in an organization that gives them freedom to operate within a system. They should be free to innovate, create, and serve. The bottom line is to return the focus to the customer. If you can trust your subject matter experts and implementers to get the job done to satisfy organizational goals then you probably don’t have the right people on the ship.

How do you this? It needs to happen as a combination of actions including:

  • Have management talk about the importance of customer focus. This means that customer focus is as important as tangible short term financial results. The idea is that you don’t sacrifice customer focus for profits because that’s short term thinking that could lead to worse results in the long term.
  • Reward teams and individuals that exhibit customer focus. If your customers let you know about employees who go the extra mile to make things happen then broadcast this information. Create a culture of customer focus by putting customer focus at the forefront.
  • Hire people with proven track records of customer focus and innovation. Find people that have received positive comments from their customers. Look for examples of how they have innovated for the customers in the past.
  • Hire people that are willing to challenge the status quo. Does your organization embrace people that challenge the status quo and the way things have always been done? Do you encourage people to ask ‘why?’.  These are your passion builders. These are members who want to serve. Get the right people on the team!

What are your thoughts? Do you have other ideas on how to better implement agile work flow practices in an organization? Do have you experiences with techniques that have or have not worked?

Organizational agility. Are you serious about it?

Adam Singer shared his thoughts about how organizational agility benefits social media and marketing efforts. As I read his thoughts I couldn’t help but think about how much I agreed with him and have struggled to promote this concept in the work place. Organizational agility is easier in new or small organizations that either don’t have the staffing to promote extra processes or have not yet had time to establish layers of processes. But how does an established organization find agility since human nature is to add processes and approvals as time passes?

Organizational Agility

Organizational Agility

To explore this question let’s first consider a few of the root causes of multiple layers of processes and approvals to get work done in an organization. One reason is to add a toll gate or checkpoint in a process after a failure. We want to ‘make sure that failure doesn’t happen again’ so we add a new checkpoint in the process.

Another reason for overly complex systems of approvals and reviews is it protects those in power through organizational reporting hierarchy. It maintains the status quo! When one has organizational power they typically don’t like being by-passed in decisions of the organizations voice and output.

Jim Collins in his book “Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap… and Others Don’t” states that “Bureaucratic cultures arise to compensate for incompetence and lack of discipline, which arise from having the wrong people on the bus.  A culture of discipline involves a duality On the one hand, it requires people who adhere to a consistent system; yet, on the other hand, it gives people freedom and responsibility within the framework of the system.”

Collins’ idea about a culture of discipline and an ethic of entrepreneurship are exactly what is needed within an organization to make it agile and nimble. Think about it. If the organization is aligned and the contributing members are working towards a common goal with the freedom to make decisions, then how much more would the organization be able to accomplish? Call it agility, call it empowered employees, call it a culture of entrepreneurship. At the end of the day, it will accomplish more in less time. The great thing is that customers reward agile customer focus from informed and empowered employees.  Employees are happier when they can do the work they were hired to do instead of spending half their time filling out forms or documents and waiting on approvals.

It’s the great business paradox of our day: We want to be nimble and get things done faster, but we must follow all the process and bureaucracy in place to make it happen.

I’d like to explore this topic further in future posts with some specific ideas about making an organization more agile to help promote eCommerce and Internet Marketing activities. Processes certainly have a place with the system of work output. But how can we make sure the process benefits us rather than owns us?